Research Methodology

Research Methodology

Contents of this site, articles are developed through historical research, folklore collection, gathering of resources, compilation of related articles, books, video-graphing and audio-taping.

Research includes recording – writing, typing, audio & video recording – of oral narrations of folktales by Awo Ayi/Khararnaosan (aged men & women) who learned from our Fore-Parents, Longshim or had experienced in their real lives.  Longshim, in olden days, was like a modern school, where our forefathers learned folk songs, folktales, and all other traditional knowledge.  There was no written records in any form in the early days. All traditional knowledge and wisdom were transferred orally.  Reading and writing were introduced only with the advent of Christianity in our society.  Some traditional knowledge such as dancing, festivities & ways of celebration, hunting & farming etc. are transferred through real life experience.

Research products and various documents are collected in papers, books, journals, soft copies in phones, laptops and in hard disk.

Gathering of resources involves assembling and compilation to readable and understandable articles.

All articles, our contents are ensured with supporting data, as our references. This data is in video uploaded in YouTube or on our website, audio attached to site or locally available books from well known authors.

Miwun Mirāt of each village/clan is generally available with the village/clan headman in book or paper.  Miwun Mirāt talks about our origin, dispersion, and spread of people of different villages/clans from place to place.  Such stories that were orally transferred but recorded safely are, in most cases, written and proof read by all members in the village or clan and approved.  Sources of these documents are also collected from village/clan headman.

List of books, journals used as our references along with authors, in no particular order;

  1. The Legacy, A Bi-Monthly Journal by A Centre for Tangkhul Socio-Historical Research & Documentation (CENTSHIRED) Publication, Ukhurl
    Major Contributors in the Legacy, in no particular order:

    • Tangkhul Literature Society
    • Hunphun Literature Society
    • N Luikham
    • K.S. Wungnaoyo
    • M.L. Raikhan
    • Rev. Somi Kasomwoshi
    • V Zingkhai
    • Zingnim Shimrah
    • W. Wungshir
    • K.K. Hugh
    • Kol Kasar
    • Ako Shaiza
    • Paul Kasar
    • Joy Keishing
    • Jayanti Keishing
    • Y.K. Shimray
  2. The Tangkhul Traditional Land Use System & Related Custom, authored by R. Luikham
  3. A Grammar of Tangkhul Language, A documentation of The Development of Human Potential -TTA; authored by Y.K. Shimray
  4. Tangkhul Tui (Dictionary/kasak-sak-Tuira Tuirarbing), authored by N Luikham, IAS(Retd)
  5. Hao Cham, authored by DS. Zimik
  6. The Naga Tribes of Manipur, authored by T.C. Hodson
  7. The Tangkhuls, authored by Sothing W.A. Shimray
  8. Wung (Tangkhul) Naga Okthot Mayonzā, authored by T. Luikham Ex. MLA
  9. Tui-Ngaren (Idioms), authored by Rev. Somi Kasomwoshi
  10. Ringphatyan, authored by S. Kanrei
  11. Hao Ngashan, authored by S Changkhui

Lists of Awo Ayi/Khararnaosan (aged men & women) who orally narrated, who sang folk-songs or from whom we gathered our contents, in no particular order:

  1. Hunphunnao:
    • Awo Zingthan Zingkhai
    • Lt. Awo Shaivi Kasomwoshi
    • Awo Wungzak Kasomwoshi
    • V Zingkhai
    • Lt. Thuingaleng Raleng
    • Lt. Ningaima Raleng
    • Ningaima Zingkhai
    • Shangreiso Raleng
    • Lt Tuizar Kasar
    • Sakho Kasomwoshi
    • Rev Somi Kasomwoshi
    • S Changkhui
    • Lt. V Ashum
    • Chanpa Raleng
    • Mangam Raleng
    • L.S. Lakangla
    • Ningkhanang Shimzingwoshi
  2. Phungchamnao
    • Phungcham Philāva Alice Horam
    • Phungchamwo Wungnaongam Horam
    • Acting Headman Kazaching Horam
    • Yorngamla Horam
    • Shimreingam Pheiray
    • Yaokharek Hongchui
  3. Langdangnao
    • Dr Ng Luithui
  4. Humpumnao (Hungpungnao)
    • Mahangthei Kasomhung
  5. Lungharnao
    • LW Ashang

List of Headmen/reliable persons from whom Miwun Mirāt Khararchān (stories) are sourced;

  1. Tangwung Luiyai Shimraywo
  2. Wungmaso Kasomwo
  3. Kazaching Horam, Acting Headman
  4. Zingthan Zingkhai & V Zingkhai  (Not Headmen)
  5. Lt. Y.K. Shimray
  6. Raleng Vashawo
  7. Yangmi Kuireiwo

List of other writers and contributors whose articles are published here;

  1. Rev. Somi Kasomwoshi
  2. Tungsa Ragui
  3. Tsivyo Kasom
  4. Shimri Raising
  5. Dr. Shimreingam Shimray
  6. Chingya Luithui
  7. A.S. John Apeng


-Tsivyo Kasom